In the early 1990s, 32 U.S. Civil Society Organizations formed a broad coalition known as (Smart Growth Network) to solve urban problems and develop neighborhoods to make them healthy, vibrant and diverse neighborhoods that offer their people how and where to live. The Smart Growth Approach consists of ten principles the sixth of which is concerned with "preserving open space and natural beauty". Open spaces are the main lungs of any city because they serve as its natural outlet. However, for the Egyptian context, open spaces do not suit the needs of the population. This paper aims to develop and increase open spaces through the study, analysis and comparisons of some experiments that used the sixth principle to conclude certain elements that would increase and develop open spaces, with the application of these experiments’ results on Zagazig City as a model of Egyptian cities to benefit from this research.
Cost is one of the three main elements in the managerial field. Researchers are developing different cost-effectiveness techniques to maximize organizations profit and minimize the unnecessary paid cost. Moreover, most of the cost-effectiveness and reduction techniques are managing the tangible costs only neglecting the intangible costs as emotions cost. Hidden transaction cost in hotels construction in Egypt was studied as an effective cost-saving variable while applying value engineering to achieve the cost-effectiveness during the project life cycle. Relative importance index (RII) analysis was done to rank the hidden transaction cost if considered during the value engineering application. The analysis was done on two groups of variables; the first group is the traditional cost variables. While the second group including the hidden transaction costs. Analysis of the cost variables revealed the actual ranking for the Hidden costs. The results add support to the decision maker to achieve the costeffectiveness by proposing a cost-effectiveness model.
Privately owned public spaces are a new model of spaces that is recently integrated in city centers and new developments. This new model is implemented through a public private partnership process that is recently adopted in regeneration strategies. The current research examines privatized open public spaces as a regeneration tool, since such spaces guarantee economic sustainability and catalyze regeneration of existing built environment surrounding them. The first part of the paper discusses open spaces as a major constituent of town character. It also examines the concept of privately owned public spaces that are different from traditional spaces owned and operated by governments. The second part of the paper explores the concept of privately owned public spaces and its applicability in urban renewal of existing decaying contexts through public private partnership, and whether it can catalyze regeneration in existing contexts, or it will change the social patterns and consequently the character of areas. Therefore it investigates case studies from developed and developing cities, to assess the applicability of the conception in the Egyptian contexts of value. It concludes with a brief framework for the evaluation of the public private partnership policies for open spaces regeneration initiatives in Egyptian context.
Nowadays, the construction industry becomes more challenging and develops rapidly, so new technologies will be needed to face that challenge. Building information modeling considered to be one of the new solutions to face the challenging of the construction industry. The research aims to examine and describe the most important BIM guidelines in the United Kingdom, United States, and Singapore. Furthermore, the BIM guidelines will be categorized in the project delivery phases (planning-design-construction-operation) and will be used to prepare a survey for the Egyptian BIM users. The survey aims to determine the scale of importance of these guidelines as a reference, in order to evaluate and arrange them in terms of importance and detect the most appropriate guidelines that the Egyptian BIM users should count on it as Egypt needs to develop one. As a result of this methodology, the research summarizes a set of the most significant BIM work-steps based on analyzing the international guidelines. In addition, the research provides a proposal for a strategic roadmap for building information modeling implementation in the Egyptian community.
New urban communities are part of a comprehensive urban development policy that attempts to meet the functional and social needs of its residents. Urban open spaces are breathing spaces for these communities to practice activities of different forms. Therefore, the study aims at identifying the interrelationship between the characteristics of the spatial configuration of these societies, movement pattern and their impact on the effectiveness of activities within open spaces. So, areas in both Al-Shorouk and Al-Obour cities were selected as study cases. Techniques of space syntax theory, as well as various observation methods, were used to identify spatial and social characteristics of the two study cases through measuring values of accessibility, choice and connectivity of streets in accordance with each study area. It may be concluded that both accessibility and connectivity are important factors in their impact on increasing the movement rates and effectiveness of activities and they are clearly affected by land usage.
Remarkably, the general development programs don't take into account the disabled children requirements or participation and they are unable to make their future decisions. A multi-sensory garden is a self-contained region that concentrates an extensive variety of sensory experiences. Such a region, if designed well, gives a valuable asset for a wide range of users, from education to recreation. It is distinct since all these components, but have to be carefully chosen and designed to appeal to the senses in such a way that they give maximum sensory stimulation. This paper focuses on the effect of multi-sensory gardens design on different aspects and their effects on disabled children, and grasp the influence of the physical environment on children and recognize environmental qualities that are linked with particular behavioral reactions. It’s investigating by observing the regions and how they are utilized by disabled children. The methodology implanted here is based on observation, surveys, which were used in conjunction with theoretical theories. Finally, concluding the important role in increasing the communication between disabled children and nature, improving cognitive performance and promoting psychological recovery.
Studies highlighted relationships between individuals’ socio-cultural values and collective behaviors on one hand, and between behaviors and attributes of related environments on the other. This formulates the research problem, as few studies tackled the impact of environments on values; mostly were theoretically oriented without empirical investigation. The present work proposes that urban environments can lead to change in values’ tendencies (individualistic and collectivistic) by developing a relational model that combines theoretical findings and empirical assessment, to enable designers to trace the impact of design elements on values. Using the identity dynamics, the research investigates their different types, shaped by social groups and environments, resulting in different complexities that, in-turn generate different values. Middle-income gated communities were used as controlled limited scale urban environments to explore complexities of design elements; where two questionnaires were conducted; the designers’, to start the model’s formulation; followed by the residents’, to complete the proposed framework/model, and enable reading and developing the relation. The model supported the work propositions that; the more complex the environment an individual lives in, the more complex his identity is, and the more individualistic values he is likely to hold and vice versa.
This paper aims to study the psychological effect of color on the users of architectural spaces in general and on the persons with intellectual disabilities in particular. The study included twenty children of different mental problems. Children were exposed to nine colors according to the scale of natural colors, black, white, and seven spectrum colors. Children were exposed for each color separately using colored light, eight colors, white and seven spectrum colors, while the colored papers are utilized to influence the black. Exposing children to each color lasted two hours a day for ten days. The degrees of reactions were recorded to each child. The study showed that colors, according to the nine-colors of color scale, had a significant effect on children with delayed mental development and autism. As this research was done to study the inability problem of children to express their colors and thus potentially harm them, the objectives were to identify colors with positive effect, colors with negative effect, and neutral colors with zero impact. They were exposed to colorful light and observed the reactions. It is expected to know which color would best affect the children with the intellectual disabilities.
The canopy of urban trees has a major impact on microclimatic conditions. Leaf area index “LAI” and leaf area density “LADz” of any tree are two major parameters that allow us to predict the tree’s climatic impact. Hence, urban planners and designers need to calculate LAI and LADz for use in urban climatic studies. Unfortunately, despite the clear need for urban trees in an arid climate such as that of Egypt, very little data is available for these two parameters. Therefore, to study the microclimate changes that a tree canopy can cause within its urban built environment, a guideline for estimating LAI and LADz values for the trees was created to generate a database that can be used as an input data for outdoor thermal simulation programs. A developed method that mixes between direct and indirect measurements used to calculate LAI values for the most common urban trees in Cairo “Ficus nitida, Delonix regia and Morus alba”, which also allowed us to find LADz values that are necessary for running ENVI-met simulations. After studying these trees’ canopy parameters and determining their respective LAI and LADz values, we concluded that Delonix reiga has the highest LAI and LADz values compared to the other two trees. Afterwards, simulating four different scenarios by using these trees to prove the effect of tree canopy; the more LAI and LAD values tree generate “more dense trees canopies”, the more impact on microclimate.
The advancement of image manipulation and editing software platforms along with the increasing reliance on digital media in press, television networks let alone online social networks, increase the risk of tampering and editing of digital content into our visual content feeds. These platforms contain computer programs that allow for adding, altering or removing important image objects without leaving traces obvious to the naked eye. Such manipulations increase the demand to verify digital images, validate their content and detect forgeries. In this paper, we focus on detecting copy-move attacks in which a part of the image is copied and pasted somewhere else in the image to hide valuable image information. We investigate the problem of detecting the copy-move forgery, discuss major detection methods, and propose a new spatial method for copy-move forgery detection. The new method successfully detects forgery even if the image is post processed by lossy compression, noise addition or blurring. The performance of this method is compared against other methods and results are demonstrated using a common copy-move image dataset.
In this paper, we use a multistage deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach to optimize medical equipment replacement for several revenue and depreciation scenarios. Each scenario is an optimal path which shows whether to keep an existing piece of medical equipment (defender) or replace it with a more economical alternative (challenger). Such an optimal path is a keep-replace sequence of the highest returns (or lowest costs) obtained with backward recursion in time. For each scenario, we estimated the optimal-sequence benefit as the difference between the highest returns (or the lowest costs) and returns (costs) of keeping medical equipment until the end of its expected life. We investigated this benefit for the scenarios of no revenue for the defender and the challenger, the scenario of equal revenues for both, and the scenario of higher revenue for the challenger. Our experiments show that the percentages of optimal-sequence benefits relative to the current acquisition cost for the three scenarios are 124%, 164%, and 204%, respectively. Moreover, the number of replacement actions increases with increasing challenger revenue and decreases with increasing depreciation rate. Last, the effect of the inflation rate on the optimal-sequence benefit was investigated.
In this research, work piece studied minimum surface roughness Ra, minimum Amp for vibration and maximum material-removal rate MRR of Manganese steel Hadfield steel investigated. The turning processes were carried out on a center lathe machine. The machining conditions selected in this work are rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and tool overhang. Taguchi’s L16 (4) orthogonal array applied for the design of experiments. The parameter processes significance quality estimated using analysis of variance ANOVA. Gray relation analysis utilised as a multiresponse optimization method. The results obtained by grey relation analysis (GRA) indicated that the Amplitude of vibration improved by 108%the material removal rate MRR was improved by 69.03%, while surface roughness Ra recorded a deviation of 7.30% from considering initial cutting conditions.
The basic idea behind fractional calculus is that it considers derivatives and integrals of non-integer orders giving extra degrees of freedom and tuning knobs for modeling complex and memory dependent systems with compact descriptions. This paper reviews fractional calculus history, theory, and its applications in electrical engineering. The basic definitions of fractional calculus are presented together with some examples. Integer order transfer function approximations and constant phase elements (CPEs) emulators are overviewed due to their importance in implementing fractional-order circuits and controllers. The stability theory of fractional-order linear systems is outlined and discussed. Four common electrical engineering applications are surveyed. Fractional-order oscillators allowcontrolling the phase difference, aswell as achieving high oscillation frequency independently. Fractional order electronic filters are used to provide non-integer order slopes eliminate the need to round up the filter order and achieve the exact required time and frequency domain specifications. Studying fractional-order bioimpedance models provides better fitting to the measured data from fruits and vegetables. Fractional order DC-DC converter models provide a better estimation of the power conversion efficiency by incorporating frequency-dependent losses.
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